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Phạm Công Tắc

BornJune 21, 1890

Binh Lap village, Chau Thanh district


Citadel degree

Known forProtecting the Caodaism religion
SpouseNguyễn Hương Nhiều

Phạm Công Tắc (1890–1959) was a leader in the establishment and development of the Caodaism religion, founded in 1926.[1][2][3] He was the leader of the Tây Ninh branch, the dominant branch of Caodaism in southern Vietnam.

Personal life[edit]

Phạm Công Tắc was born on June 21, 1890 (ie, May 5 of year of the Tiger) in Binh Lap village, Chau Thanh district, Tan An province (now in Tan An thành phố, Long An province). He is the 7th child in a family of 8 children.

His father is Mr. Pham Cong Thien, a colonial government official, born in An Hoa village, Trang Bang district, Tay Ninh province. His mother is La Thi Duong, also from An Hoa village.

In 1896, he started attending primary school in Tan An, where his father worked, but then his father quit his job and brought the whole family back đồ sộ his hometown. He was baptized at Tay Ninh church in 1900. Two years later, his father died. Although his family was very difficult, in 1906, Pham Cong Tac continued đồ sộ study at Chasseloup-Laubat School in Saigon. In 1907, he passed the Citadel degree.


During high school, Pham Cong Tac actively participated in the Dong Du movement in Saigon led by two Mr. Gilbert Tran Chanh Chieu and Duong Khac Ninh. In 1908, he was prepared đồ sộ be sent abroad by Minh Tan Association, an organization that initiated the Dong Du movement; But then, it was revealed that he couldn't go. Due đồ sộ the attention of the government, he had đồ sộ drop out of school.

Due đồ sộ his general qualifications, Pham Cong Tac is recognized as a merchant. During this time, he collaborated with newspapers such as Cong An, La Cloche Fêlée by Nguyen An Ninh, La Voix Libre (Voice of Freedom), Luc Tinh Tan Van by Pierre Jeantet, and Mr. Gilbert Chieu. as editor... under the pseudonym Ai Dan. These are newspapers that more or less promote the national spirit, ví they become thorns in the eyes of the colonial government. After Mr. Gilbert Chieu was arrested, the publication was suspended, and he returned đồ sộ his hometown.

In 1910, the family fell into poverty, ví Pham Cong Tac had đồ sộ apply for a job at the Saigon Department of Commerce. After getting a job, he married Mrs. Nguyen Huong Many. They had 3 children together (1 son, 2 girls) but the son died early when he was 4 years old. Although he is a public employee, his family is still struggling because of a poor lifestyle

Because of his position, Pham Cong Tac was transferred đồ sộ many places, first đồ sộ Cai Nhum (Vinh Long), Quy Nhon, then đồ sộ Saigon, and finally đồ sộ Nam Vang (Phnom Penh). During his time as a civil servant for the French colonial government, he held only a low-level position as secretary of the Department of Commerce.

Building the Church[edit]

With Mr. Vuong Quang Ky's liên hệ, there was a reciprocal relationship between the muscle groups. On February 21, 1926 (January 9 ), in the year of the Tiger, in a planchette writing session at Mr. Ky's house, famous figures of planchette writing groups were invited đồ sộ attend, a poem was circulated as follows: The destiny of God, including the names of 13 people, was later proclaimed by Cao Dai followers as the first followers of the religion, with Mr. Ngo Van Chieu being honored as Big Brother.

At a ceremony on April 17, 1926 (March 6 in the Year of the Tiger) at Tu Lam Tu, Pham Cong Tac, along with Mr. Le Van Trung , Cao Quynh Cu and Mrs. Nguyen Thi Hieu, received the standard promotion. He was converted into a religious uniform đồ sộ confer Mr. Ngo Van Chieu. However, Mr. Chieu refused and returned the money đồ sộ sew this costume. Since then, he has not participated in any popularizing activities, but only selected a small number of his own followers đồ sộ practice according đồ sộ the way of the inner teachings. split into a separate sect, forming the Cao Dai Chieu Minh sect.

The formation of the Church did not stop there. From April 22 đồ sộ 26, 1926, during planchette writing meetings, key believers were ordained đồ sộ high positions đồ sộ sườn the church, including:

Ông Lê Văn Trung phong Đầu sư Thượng Trung Nhựt.

Ông Lê Văn Lịch phong Đầu sư Ngọc Lịch Nguyệt.

Ông Phạm Công Tắc phong Hộ giá chỉ Tiên đồng Tá cơ Đạo sĩ

Ông Cao Quỳnh Cư phong Tiên Hạc Tá cơ Đạo sĩ

Các ông Trương Hữu Đức và Nguyễn Trung Hậu phong Tiên Hạc Phò cơ Đạo sĩ

Ông Vương Quang Kỳ phong Tiên Sắc Lang Quân nhậm Thuyết Đạo Giáo sư

Ông Đoàn Văn Bản phong Tiên Đạo Công Thần nhậm Thuyết Đạo Giáo sư.

Thus, in the organization of the original Church, the position of the Patriarch, the Master, the Taoist Ta Co, the Pho Co, and the Professor was formed. Because Mr. Chieu refused the Catholic throne, the leadership role was taken by the two gurus Le Van Trung and Le Van Lich.

At that time, the titles of Dharma Protector, Senior High, and Thuong Sanh were not officially ordained at that time, but only through the positions of standing ceremony, later formed high-ranking positions in Hiep Thien Dai.

"The children are: Nghia, Hau, Duc, Trang, Cu, Tac, Sang, all dressed in white, in order đồ sộ follow this class: Nghia, Duc stand outside, are at the altar of Dharma protector, then Hau and Trang stand. the next couple, then the last three: Middle, Cu face, Left."

From these first dignitaries, the church gradually developed into 6 Ouija boards in Cochinchina, gaining more followers. On September 29, 1926 (August 23 in the year of the Tiger), he and 246 followers phối up a sheet of martyrdom (the list of believers). In the Declaration of Enlightenment sent đồ sộ the Governor of Cochinchina Le Pol on October 7, 1926 (ie September 1), his name ranked 18th among 28 fellow believers who signed the declaration. Then the followers divided into 3 groups đồ sộ go đồ sộ Cochinchina in Luc province.

In 1927, the French colonial government moved him đồ sộ Nam Vang (Phnom Penh). Here, as a Colonel, he recruited a number of believers and ordained according đồ sộ his pen, thereby forming the Overseas Missionary Service đồ sộ evangelize abroad. Among the first dignitaries of the Pagan Church, some became influential figures later on, such as Receptionist Cao Duc Trong, Professor Thuong Chu Thanh (Dang Trung Chu) and advisor đồ sộ the Western Provincial Resistance Committee. Ninh, Coordinator Thuong Vinh Thanh (Tran Quang Vinh) Commander-in-Chief of the Cao Dai army... Due đồ sộ his active activities and the Pagan Church, which influenced a number of French intellectuals and officials, May In February 1932, the French National Assembly approved for Cao Dai followers đồ sộ enjoy freedom of religion throughout Indochina.

Religious life[edit]

In 1925, Tắc and two colleagues (Cao Quynh Cu and Cao Hoai Sang) tried đồ sộ liên hệ spiritual entities. Using table-tapping, they supposedly got messages: from their deceased relatives first, then from saints, and then from God. They all were admitted đồ sộ be God's first disciples in the Third Religious Amnesty.

Caodaism believes that on 25 April 1926, eighteen mediums, including Tắc, were chosen by God đồ sộ spread his teachings and carry out his instructions. Tắc wrote the Cao Đài Religious Constitution and scriptures currently worshipped by Caodaiists. He was promoted đồ sộ Hộ Pháp, one of the top-ranking posts of the clergy.

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In 1927, Tắc was transferred đồ sộ Cambodia by the colonial government; he took the opportunity đồ sộ establish Cao Đài Foreign Missions.

After acting Pope Lê Văn Trung's death, he became the religious head and established a number of other religious organs.

Tắc gave the order đồ sộ begin the construction of the Tây Ninh Holy See and later officiated the inauguration. Other buildings and houses were phối up under his supervision, including the Temple of Intuition, the Temple of Enlightenment, Long Hoa Market, the Temple of Acknowledgement, and the Temple of the Goddess. Others were planned for more favorable conditions such as the Temple of Thousands of Dharma, the Main Entrance Avenue, and Cao Đài University which have not been started as of 2007.

Tắc was also a missionary; he gave speeches on the Holy Never Pathway and Esoteric Practice which were shorthanded by stenographers and published in 1970.

A religious figure in Vietnam from 1940s đồ sộ 1950s[edit]

Establishment of Phuoc Thien Agency On December 10, 1938, he and Pope Ly Thai Bach issued Decree No. 48/PT đồ sộ establish the Phuoc Thien Agency with 12 dignitaries called the Divine Twelve. This Phuoc Thien agency is the agency that creates economic bases and creates material wealth for Cao Dai religion in order đồ sộ tư vấn activities in the religion and provide social charity for orphaned children. lonely old man. And organize relief efforts for victims of wars and natural disasters.

In 1941, many Vietnamese rebellions against French colonists broke out throughout the country. French rulers did what they could đồ sộ suppress the movement, imprisoning those who challenged their power. Notably, they felt threatened by the quick development of Cao Đài. Hộ Pháp Phạm Công Tắc and at least four other Cao Đài dignitaries were sent into exile in Madagascar. During this period, French soldiers seized the Tây Ninh Holy See and the other religious offices, temporarily prohibiting all religious activities.

As a result, the Cao Đài Armed Forces were founded by General Tran Quang Vinh in Southern Vietnam ví as đồ sộ protect Cao Đài believers as well as đồ sộ overthrow the French government with Japanese military aid. However, Japanese Armed Forces were defeated in 1945 and withdrew. The Vietnamese people in general, and the Cao Đài Army in particular, were faced with the Allied, then French, return đồ sộ Vietnam.

In 1946, the political situation changed. Faced with the threat of the communist-led Việt Minh in the south, the French decided đồ sộ bring back Hộ Pháp Phạm Công Tắc from exile and đồ sộ ask for his cooperation in the struggle against the communists. Phạm Công Tắc agreed, but not all Cao Đài leaders followed his lead. A treaty was signed between General Tran Quang Vinh and the French colonists on 9 June 1946. From then on, Hộ Pháp Phạm Công Tắc resumed his post as leader of the Tây Ninh branch of the Cao Đài. Phạm Cong Tác collaborated with the French with the aim of securing the independence of at least the southern part of Vietnam.

Build 3 Palaces 3 Caves He also built the 3 Palaces and 3 Caves, and made a Pure House đồ sộ impart the Secret Method of Dao training đồ sộ the followers of Chan.

In 1947, he built Tri Hue Cung - Thien Hy cave as a sanctuary for women and completed it on January 22, 1951.

On December 29, 1954, he issued Instruction No. 285/VP-HP, building Tri Giac palace - Dia Linh as a retreat for both men and women. [17]

On November 23, 1954, he personally went đồ sộ Ba Den mountain đồ sộ phối up a place đồ sộ build a private room named Van Phap Cung - Nhon Hoa Dong used as a net room for men. In March 1955, officially started construction.

Store Long Hoa Market From 1947 onward, the Viet Minh's war of independence against the French army spread everywhere, causing Cao Dai followers from all over the world đồ sộ flock đồ sộ Tay Ninh Holy Land đồ sộ settle down more and more. winter. So on November 12, Nham Thin year (dl December 28, 1952), he started construction of Long Hoa market according đồ sộ his location and drawings ví that Cao Dai followers could have a place đồ sộ vì thế business. Today, this is the largest market in Tay Ninh province and was renamed Long Hoa Trade Center. The market is located in Hoa Thanh Town , about 1 km from Tay Ninh Holy See. [19]

A zealous missionary In addition đồ sộ the task of leading the Tam Ky Pho Do Church of Tay Ninh Holy See , he is also a monk. To Cao Dai followers , he preached the truth in the name of God in the world. Not đồ sộ mention the speeches in religious ceremonies, his sermons on the Sacred Way of Life and the Secret Law were recorded and published by the Tay Ninh Holy See Shorthand Board. Cao Dai followers consider this document very important because the nội dung of these lectures contains the philosophy and formal practices that are ví characteristic of Cao Dai.

In 1954, Vietnamese Head of State chỉ Đại asked Hộ Pháp Phạm Công Tắc đồ sộ be one of the advisors for the Vietnamese delegates in Geneva, Switzerland. He went đồ sộ Paris and tried đồ sộ prevent Vietnam from being partitioned. His persuasion failed. After that, he paid visits đồ sộ Taiwanese and South Korean leaders. In 1955, General Nguyen Thanh Phuong, unofficially instigated by Ngô Đình Nhu, surrounded Tây Ninh Holy See, demanding an internal purification; this was actually a raid on those who opposed Ngô Đình Diệm's regime. Hộ Pháp Phạm Công Tắc fled the country, seeking political asylum in Cambodia. He lived there until his death in 1959.

A building planner It was he who started the construction of the Holy See in 1936 and held the inauguration ceremony of the Tay Ninh Holy See in 1955 . The Holy See is the most important institution of the Cao Dai religion (the most important dharma).

Without this legal body toàn thân, Cao Dai religion could not develop into a regulated religion.

It is important that the whole formula and plan đồ sộ build a new world "in Charity and Justice" was deposited by him in architectural works đồ sộ serve as a model for his writing...

The philosophy of Caodaism comes from God .

The philosophy of Cao Dai religion was formed by the protector Pham Cong Tac.

In addition, many other facilities were also built during his reign of Cao Dai Patriarch, such as: Tri Hue Palace, Tri Giac Cung, Long Hoa Market, Bao An Tu (Temporary Mother Buddha Temple) , etc. ..

There are also a number of other facilities already planned for later implementation.

To date, these facilities have not yet commenced construction. Among these can be mentioned Van Phap Palace, the official Temple of the Mother Buddha; Trihui Palace airport. And it was he who founded the first Pure House of Cao Dai religion, Tri Hue Cung.

He held the power of the Supreme Being in the world đồ sộ promulgate: General Laws of Associations; Internal Law of Nhon Sanh Association; Internal Law of the Church; in 03 Van Linh Association. (Without these three laws, there is no right đồ sộ Van Linh in Cao Dai religion). Especially, the Law of the Year of the Tiger "1938" established the four pillars of Cao Dai religious administration: Administrative, Phuoc Thien, Pho Te and Toa Dao.

The religious practice "like vegetarianism - practicing benevolence" was brought into society and dissolved into the hearts of the inhabitants of Cao Dai Holy Land , creating a cultural lifestyle in the society and people of Tay Ninh in particular and all over the world. Cao Dai followers in the world in general đồ sộ this day.

The most obvious marks are:

- Arrange infrastructure in Tay Ninh Holy Land. (The highest rate of roads in Vietnam today)

- Two facts that have been properly verified are:

Currently, the Holy Land is a place where many people work, meaning "Voluntarily helping others without receiving money" nowhere else can "Funeral is solemnly celebrated and completely miễn phí...." Currently, it is the place with the highest percentage of vegetarians in Vietnam and the whole world...


Phạm Công Tắc was the author of many books on Cao Đài, including:

  • How đồ sộ practice Caodaism under the pen-name Ai Dan (1928)
  • A Visit đồ sộ Heaven (1927)
  • The Third Method of Practicing Caodaism (1947)
  • Breviaries for secular activities

A symbol of esoterism for Caodaists[edit]

It is believed that Hộ Pháp Phạm Công Tắc was taught how đồ sộ practice esoterism by God. He established the first meditation house, the Temple of Intuition, and entered for the first esoteric performance. However, there has been no evidence that he taught someone else đồ sộ vì thế ví. He was the only Cao Đài leader who preached esoteric and exoteric practices of Caodaism.

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  • Life and work of His Holiness Pham Cong Tac
  • Biography of His Holiness PCT by His Holiness Thuong Sanh
  • The Divine Path đồ sộ Eternal Life
  • Chân dung Hộ Pháp Phạm Công Tắc – Trần văn Rạng – 1974
  • Lời thuyết Đạo của Hộ Pháp Phạm Công Tắc –– Tài liệu Tòa Thánh Tây Ninh – 1973
  • Bí Pháp – Tài liệu Tòa Thánh Tây Ninh- 1973
  • Con Đường Thiêng Liêng Hằng Sống – Tài liệu Tòa Thánh Tây Ninh - 1973
  • Đại Đạo Sử Cương – Trần văn Rạng – 1972
  • Đại Thừa Chơn Giáo – Chiếu Minh – 1956
  • Bí Pháp Luyện Đạo – Bát Nương Diêu trì Cung – Bản Thảo.
  • Tự Điển Cao Đài – Nguyễn văn Hồng


  1. ^ Serguei A. Blagov -Caodaism: Vietnamese Traditionalism and Its Leap Into Modernity 2001- Page 78 "800 delegates, representing some 135,000 adepts, reportedly attended. However, Lê Vàn Trung declined đồ sộ attend the meeting. Consequently, the Council supported Trang's allegations. Phạm Công Tắc initiated an attempt đồ sộ clinch a peace ...
  2. ^ Nghia M. Vo Saigon: A History 2011 page 111 Phạm Công Tắc
  3. ^ Philippe M. F. Peycam -The Birth of Vietnamese Political Journalism: Saigon, 1916-1930 - Page 151 2013 "This was reflected in the social origin of the religion's founders, who for the most part were second-rank clerical employees in the civil service (Ngô Văn Chiêu, Phạm Công Tắc) or were lượt thích Lê Văn Trung, a bankrupt businessman and former